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git 优雅的撤销中间某次提交方法

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查看614 | 回复0 | 2020-9-3 17:02:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
环境
git : 2+
前言
最近两天,公司的git合并代码时,出现了严重的问题,浪费很多时间;
现在记录下;
情况是这样的,一个同事自己的本地分支(远程没有),不知怎么的,有了别人开发分支的代码,而他自己又不知道;
其在切换到主分支,并merge自己的分支,此时其已经把别人正在开发的代码都合并到了主分支。
到了晚上准备升级时,才发现,主分支的代码出了问题;此时版本库是这样的:

git 优雅的撤销中间某次提交方法-1.png

如图 100047dcc这一步就有不该有的代码;
而此时版本库已经提交过了很多次,现在的问题就是,如何撤销掉100047dcc提交的代码,并且保留其他人提交的代码。
这个问题,折腾到了晚上9点半左右,尝试了网上给出的:

git rebase -i commit_id
//再通过将pick改为drop但是,实际的效果是,100047dcc代码没了,其他人提交的代码也没有了!
也就是给人感觉和git reset --hard be8c6f6dd没有什么区别!
最后因为太晚,从提交记录上看,100047dcc之后就一个人提交了代码,所以就执行了:

//先切一个备份分支
git branch -b master_tmp
//再执行
git reset --hard be8c6f6dd之后,那个人(也就是我)从备份分支上把文件拷贝回来—(因为我是直接在主分支上改的,自己的分支并没有代码)。
第二天,我打算去拷贝文件,我执行如下操作:

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master)
$ git pull
remote: Counting objects: 44, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (23/23), done.
remote: Total 26 (delta 19), reused 0 (delta 0)
Unpacking objects: 100% (26/26), done.
From gitlab.gofund.cn:gg-service/ggservice
+ 1784b12...384decc master   -> origin/master (forced update)
  f8f2b19..eb33489 devyaomy  -> origin/devyaomy
* [new branch]   master_tmp -> origin/master_tmp
Already up-to-date.

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master)
$ git status
On branch master
Your branch is ahead of 'origin/master' by 796 commits.
(use "git push" to publish your local commits)
nothing to commit, working directory clean

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master)
$ git push
Total 0 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
To git@gitlab.gofund.cn:gg-service/ggservice.git
  384decc..1784b12 master -> master简单的说,我的操作就是两步:
1git pull
2、git push
结果又把代码还原回去了!
为啥呢?
虽然昨天晚上,把远程库的版本回退到了正确的版本,但是我的本地主分支还是最新的commit,也就是说,相比远程库,我本地库是超前了多次提交,毕竟因为远程库回退了嘛!
这个时候,我必须也得对本地库进行回退,回退到线上相同的commit节点才行。
这个时候,我做了以下几个操作:

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master)
$ git reset --soft 384deccaa6
$ git status
On branch master
Your branch is up-to-date with 'origin/master'.
Changes to be committed:
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)

    modified:  .gitignore
    modified:  conf/application.conf
    new file:  conf/hanlp.properties
    new file:  dataservice/app/ggservice/common/UserCodeEnum.java
    new file:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/BindEmailGG3Action.java
    new file:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/SendEmailCaptchaGG3Action.java
    // 文件太多不一一显示
yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master)
$ git reset --hard 384deccaa6上面敲了很多命令,其实真正只需要git reset --hard 384deccaa6即可。

git reset --hard 384deccaa6接下来,我开始复制粘贴,从备份分支上,把代码拷贝下。
真的操蛋,这等于是增加工作量啊!
revert 撤销某次提交
到了下午,又有个同事干了类似我上午的操作。把不该有的代码提交上去了!
这就麻烦了,虽然远程库回退了!结果是要求凡是pull最新代码的人,都得进行本地回退的操作。
否则,就没完没了!
到了晚上,对着备份分支进行测试,终于找到了优雅的解决办法!
这就是revert命令
该命令就是为撤销某次提交而存在的;
首先,我是明白100047dcc这次提交是有问题的,这是问题的源头;
也就是说,只要我们把这次提交的给撤销了,就不会有问题了!
步骤 一

$ git revert 100047dcc
error: Commit 100047dccb58f3ee5e27b0dfaf5c02ac91dc2c73 is a merge but no -m option was given.
fatal: revert failed结果报错了,报了一个Commit is a merge but no -m option was given.
为什么呢?
如果100047dcc这只是一个普通的提交,其实是不会报错的!
但是,这是一个merge的提交。
那么在撤销时,git并不知道我要撤销具体哪次!如下图:

git 优雅的撤销中间某次提交方法-2.png

这个时候,怎么办呢?
我的做法
步骤二

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp)
$ git revert 100047dcc -m 1
error: could not revert 100047d... Merge branch 'master' of gitlab.gofund.cn:gg-service/ggservice into wjs
hint: after resolving the conflicts, mark the corrected paths
hint: with 'git add <paths>' or 'git rm <paths>'
hint: and commit the result with 'git commit'我执行了这样的一个操作:

git revert 100047dcc -m 1参数 -m 就是指定要撤销的那个提价,从左往右,从1开始数;也就是我撤销的是ca4a7ff999。
接着其把代码冲突,然后我就解决冲突,保留主分支的代码,去掉那个人的代码。
解决完冲突后,我执行如下操作:

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git add -A

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git status
On branch master_tmp
Your branch is up-to-date with 'origin/master_tmp'.
You are currently reverting commit 100047d.
(all conflicts fixed: run "git revert --continue")
(use "git revert --abort" to cancel the revert operation)

Changes to be committed:
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)

    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/datacentre/action/GetIncomeDistributeAction.java
    //文件太多省略。。。

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git commit -m "ceshi"
[master_tmp d2ae829] ceshi
18 files changed, 95 insertions(+), 396 deletions(-)我上面执行的语句其实就是:

$ git add -A
$ git commit -m "ceshi"步骤三

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp)
$ git revert 100047dcc -m 2
error: could not revert 100047d... Merge branch 'master' of gitlab.gofund.cn:gg-service/ggservice into wjs
hint: after resolving the conflicts, mark the corrected paths
hint: with 'git add <paths>' or 'git rm <paths>'
hint: and commit the result with 'git commit'也就是执行:

$ git revert 100047dcc -m 2即 撤销be8c6f6dde的提交,这个时候也会提示代码冲突了,
接着和上面一样,解决冲突,在提交:

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git status
On branch master_tmp
Your branch is ahead of 'origin/master_tmp' by 1 commit.
(use "git push" to publish your local commits)
You are currently reverting commit 100047d.
(fix conflicts and run "git revert --continue")
(use "git revert --abort" to cancel the revert operation)

Changes to be committed:
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)

    modified:  .gitignore
    deleted:  conf/hanlp.properties
    deleted:  dataservice/app/ggservice/common/UserCodeEnum.java
    deleted:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/BindEmailGG3Action.java
    deleted:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/SendEmailCaptchaGG3Action.java
    deleted:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/service/EmailCaptchaService.java
    deleted:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/expert/action/GetExpertOfStockAssessAction.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/expert/service/ExpertGG3Service.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/action/GetMyStockLabelInfoAction.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/action/UpdateUserTokenInfoAction.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/service/AppDOSInfoService.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/service/UserInfoService.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/graph/action/GetStockPlateComponentAction.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/graph/service/StockPlateService.java
    // 文件太多省略。。。

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git add -A

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git status
On branch master_tmp
Your branch is ahead of 'origin/master_tmp' by 1 commit.
(use "git push" to publish your local commits)
You are currently reverting commit 100047d.
(all conflicts fixed: run "git revert --continue")
(use "git revert --abort" to cancel the revert operation)

Changes to be committed:
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)

    modified:  .gitignore
    modified:  conf/application.conf
    deleted:  conf/hanlp.properties
    deleted:  dataservice/app/ggservice/common/UserCodeEnum.java
    deleted:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/BindEmailGG3Action.java
    deleted:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/SendEmailCaptchaGG3Action.java
    deleted:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/service/EmailCaptchaService.java
    deleted:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/expert/action/GetExpertOfStockAssessAction.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/expert/service/ExpertGG3Service.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/action/GetMyStockLabelInfoAction.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/action/UpdateUserTokenInfoAction.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/service/AppDOSInfoService.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/service/UserInfoService.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/graph/action/GetStockPlateComponentAction.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/graph/service/StockPlateService.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/hq/action/GetStockHistoryDynamicAction.java
    modified:  dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/keybordspirit/action/GetMyGroupStockIndexAction.java

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git commit -m "使用revert 版本号 -m 1或者2同时进行撤销某次提交测试"
[master_tmp 236da00] 使用revert 版本号 -m 1或者2同时进行撤销某次提交测试
95 files changed, 2093 insertions(+), 10011 deletions(-)
delete mode 100644 conf/hanlp.properties
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/common/UserCodeEnum.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/BindEmailGG3Action.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/SendEmailCaptchaGG3Action.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/service/EmailCaptchaService.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/expert/action/GetExpertOfStockAssessAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/mobile/action/BindMobileGG3Action.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/mobile/action/SendMobileCaptchaGG3Action.java
rewrite dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/mystocktags/service/MyStockTagService.java (82%)
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetAuthorRankListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetAuthorRecommendReportListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetHonoraryAuthorListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetHotIndustryListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetHotStockListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetHotThemeListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetOrganRankListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/condition/AuthorOrganRankCondition.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/condition/HotReportCondition.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/service/HotReportService.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/AutoLoginAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/BindOuterChannelAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/EmailRegisterAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/GetUserAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/IsAccountExistAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/LoginAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/LogoutAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/OuterChannelLoginAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/RegisterAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/service/LoginService.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/service/RegisterService.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/service/UserCommonUtils.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/service/UserService.java即:

$ git add -A
$ git commit -m "使用revert 版本号 -m 1或者2同时进行撤销某次提交测试"可以看出删除掉了那个人提交的文件。
最后一步

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp)
$ git push这样就把那个人提交错误的代码给删除了,其他人的本地分支也不需要版本回退了!
一次改好,到处OK!
总结
当想撤销中间某次提交时,强烈建议使用revert命令,而不是reset。
git reset –hard commit_id 虽然可以回退远程库,但是其要求pull最新代码的每个人的本地分支都要进行版本回退。这样就增加工作量了!
正确的步骤:

git revert commit_id
//如果commit_id是merge节点的话,-m是指定具体哪个提交点
git revert commit_id -m 1
//接着就是解决冲突
git add -A
git commit -m ".."
git revert commit_id -m 2
//接着就是解决冲突
git add -A
git commit -m ".."
git push其中git revert commit_id -m 数字是针对,merge提交点的操作。
如果是普通的提交点,不需要这么麻烦。
参考地址:
[Git高级教程(二)] 远程仓库版本回退方法
https://www.cnblogs.com/ShaYeBlog/p/5368064.html
https://blog.csdn.net/hongchangfirst/article/details/49472913
到此这篇关于git 优雅的撤销中间某次提交方法的文章就介绍到这了,更多相关git 撤销某次提交内容请搜索目录社区以前的文章或继续浏览下面的相关文章希望大家以后多多支持目录社区!

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